Impact Assessment of Rural Development Programmes of Madhya Pradesh
Background : The Ministry of Rural Development, G.O.I, in order to alleviate rural poverty and accelerate socio-economic development in rural areas, has launched various rural development programmes with specific targets of self employment, wage employment, housing and social security etc. The Ministry has an inbuilt monitoring system to evaluate the performance of these programmes on regular basis. However, subsequently it was felt that the work of evaluation, to remain bias free, must be carried out by independent agency which will present real picture of performance. In this context the Centre for Advanced Research and Development [CARD] was identified as one of the institutions, to take-up impact assessment of the various programmes of rural development [most of them are centrally sponsored] which had been implemented during the period 1999-2002. The impact assessment was done for following districts, Sagar, Betul, Jhabua, Chhindwara, Dhar, Shahdol, Guna, Jashpur [C.G]
Objective : The objectives of the study, more or less common in nature for all the districts as listed above, were as follows:-
- To examine whether the guidelines on various programmes are being followed with reference to selection of beneficiaries, utilization of fund and Keeping proper level of transparency by interacting with the people in the process of implementation.
- To examine whether the assets created are properly maintained, used and are cost effective.
- To assess the impact of the programme on productivity and poverty alleviation, their contribution towards increasing / improving production, employment and living conditions of people living below the poverty line. The study made it obligatory to estimate the number of persons who have been uplifted above the poverty line after availing benefits of various programmes.
- To assess the quality of assets created under infrastructure development in rural areas and their physical verification.
- To assess whether infrastructure development under Sampoorn Gramin Rojgar Yojana [SGRY], Water Supply, Drought Prone Area Programme [DPAP] Integrated Watershed Development Programme [IWDP] etc. have contributed in providing minimum basic services and overall improvement in the living conditions of poor in rural areas.
- Income status of beneficiaries before and after availing assistance under R.D. programmes.
- Quantification of indirect benefits accruing to rural areas in terms of increasing productivity particularly in respect of watershed development programmes.
- Improvement in quality of life both at beneficiary and group levels.
- Assessing the methods of publicity of the schemes, creation of awareness among beneficiaries about the details of the scheme including their own entitlements.
- An overall assessment of the impact of all the schemes converging in a village and how they have reflected over socio-economic development of the area during the three years of reference period as a result of implementation of R.D. programmes.
- Suggestions for improvement of design, structure and implementation of scheme and delivery of services to the beneficiaries.
- Four development blocks from each district have been identified with two developed and two backward blocks.
- Ten Gram Panchayats [GPs] from each block were selected in a manner to cover all the rural development programmes. The sample villages were identified on the basis of some common characteristics such as their accessibility, population, having Panchayat headquarters, predominance of tribal population, natural resource endowment etc.
- Around 10 beneficiaries and 5 non-beneficiaries were selected from each of 10 villages to judge the status of the scheme.
Investigation Tools and Methods
Following methods were adopted
- Field survey using semi structured schedule.
- Focused Group Discussion [F.G.D]
- Case studies.
Scope and Coverage
The schemes / programmes usually covered were :-
- Swarn Jayanti Gram Swarojgar Yojana [SGSY]
- Sampoorna Gramin Rojgar Yojana [SGRY]
- Indira Awas Yojana [IAY]
- Accelerated Rural Water Supply Programme [ARWSP]
- Rural Sanitation Programme [RSP]
- Total Sanitation Campaign [TSC]
- Integrated Watershed Development Programme [IWDP]
- National Maternity Benefit Scheme.
- National Family Benefit Scheme.