Study for Mapping of Child Care Institutions
The nation’s policy towards children had always ensured their welfare through proper upkeep particularly for those children who are exposed to social vulnerability leading to their insecure existence. Articles, 14, 15, 16, 21, 23 and 24 of constitution mention the need of protection of children from any form of exploitation. In U N Convention of Child ‘s Right, 1989 , The Minimum Standard By Laws of U N , 1985 , and Hague Convention of Adoption of Children Outside Country, 1993 , a deep anxiety was expressed about welfare of children. The G O I also formulated various acts : the oldest among them was National Child Labour Policy, 1887 followed by Sanrakshan Pratipalaya Adhiniyam , 1890, National Education Policy, 1986 National Child Charter, 2004 and Juvenile Justice ( Care and Protection of Children ) Act, 2000. All these Acts were ultimately aimed at protecting children from various indiscretion both individual and social. However, it was felt that though plethora of Acts were in existence but their implementation responsibilities were entrusted to different Ministries with the result Coordination became very difficult. In view of Such imbalance, the G O I in the ministry of Woman and Child Development ( WCD ) formulated a programme of Integrated Child Protection Scheme ( ICPS ) in the year 2009 which is now being implemented in entire country. The ICPS is an umbrella programme including every aspect of Child Care . Against this background the present study – Mapping of Child Care Institutions has been undertaken.
Followings are the main objectives:-
- Preparing comprehensive list of all orphanages in the selected districts to help regularize their status and obtain government funding.
- To identify status of children so that children below six years of age are moved to adoption agencies.
- To study the facilities available at different orphanages including infrastructure, health, education, nutrition, recreation etc.
The mapping of child care institutions was initially proposed for whole of Madhya Pradesh but later 25 districts were selected taking both big and small district to make the sample representative. In all 50 child care institutions from 25 districts were covered. The list of districts is given hereunder:-
Ashoknagar, Bhopal, Chhindwara, Datia, Guna, Gwalior, Indore, Jabalpur, Katni, Shivpuri, Alirajpur, Balaghat, Dewas, Dhar, Dindori, Jhabua, Mandla, Mandsaur, Neemuch, Ratlam, Sehore, Seoni, Shahdol, Ujjain, Umaria.
The participatory methodology was developed in consultation with Catalyists for Social Action (CSA) and by incorporating suggestions from both retired and in service government institutions involved in child protection and rehabilitation.
A two stage methodology was involved – first to trace the existence of child care institutions both registered and unregistered in the selected districts and then gather the information both primary and secondary. The details are as under :-
Child Care Institutions – Primary Information
The format includes following important parameters :-
- Type of Institution
- Number of children by age group
- Health and hygiene
- Living standard
- Drinking water
- Status of Kitchen
- Other assets
- Rehabilitation of children
Focused Group Discussion – Primary Information
In this format opinion of children about the institution has been collected. About 10 percent children (with the permission of authorities) were identified where number of children was large.
District Consultative Meeting – Secondary Information
Meetings were organized in all the districts under the supervision of District Project officer. CSA representatives were also present in a few meeting.
The data collection work was conducted in two phases – first 10 districts were covered and subsequently 15 more districts were incorporated Out of these 40 institutions responded while 13 institutions refused to coopertate.
The Way Forward
It has been experienced that orphan children are primarily an urban problem – that to of bigger cities and districts . It will be worthwhile to organize orphanages at bigger places which may cover smaller adjoining areas. This will facilitate inspection effort, The institutions may have better services and adoption cases will be speedily finalized etc.
- The child care work can not remain to be the responsibility of one department . The reputed NGOs may be involved in monitoring function.
- Unregistered institutions need to be registered immediately.
- A data base may be developed for public dissemination.
- The corporate sector may be persuaded to adopt any such institution.
- Bal kayan Samiti existing in every district need be activated.
- All the government schemes meant for child welfare may be implemented in such institutions.